In writing the conclusion to this book I am constantly aware of the vast amount of material left undiscussed. For example, I have not mentioned the major developments in machine translation, that both contributed to advances in linguistics and then in turn benefited from those advances. The complex problems of translating cinematic texts, where the translation process also involves a kinetic-visual component as audiences focus on the lip movements of the actors, and the related question of subtitling, where reading speed, paraphrase and summary are integral elements, has not been dealt with at all. Nor, perhaps even more crucially, has the whole question of oral translation or interpreting been touched upon. It is easy to plead lack of space for such gaps, but I feel that nevertheless the point must be made so that this book may not seem to have a bias of the very kind it has sought to overcome: a bias towards ‘high’ literature that devalues work in the cinema, research in oral literature and electronics. Nothing could be further from my intentions, and in dealing with generally accepted ‘literary’ texts the central criterion was to acquaint the reader with the most widely discussed problems of translation.