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The IUAV (Istituto Universitario di Architettura di Venezia, or Venice University Institute of Architecture) is one of the oldest and most important schools of architecture in Europe. Under the directorship of Samonà from 1945-71, the liveliest protagonists of architectural culture in Italy were called to teach there-amongst them Albini, Belgiojoso, De Carlo, Gardella, Muratori and Scarpa (who became director from 1972-8)—and it achieved prominence as a refuge for restless non-academic intellectuals. Later, figures such as Gregotti, Aymonino, Rossi, Tafuri (who was director of the Department of History of Architecture) and Massimo Cacciari also taught there.