Keynes and Marshall: methodology, science and politics
The importance of Keynes’s Marshall heritage is increasingly being acknowledged in the discussion and interpretation of his economics. This is not surprising. After all, Keynes was a product of, and early participator in, the Cambridge school that Marshall had created. Moreover, he had the distinction of being one of the few personal students of Marshall among the many teachers who made that school so important in the period between the two world wars. As editor of the Economic Journal (Moggridge 1990), Keynes initially operated when many of the problems raised in the journal were thrown up by direct, and indirect, discussions of the Marshallian research programme. This had been spelled out in the oral tradition of his teaching (for a brief definition, see Groenewegen 1988: esp. 650) to be interpreted by his anointed successor to the Cambridge chair, by his indirect pupils (that is, the pupils taught by pupils) in the pre-World War I period, and by the later, post-1918 generation which taught economics at Cambridge until the end of the 1920s (cf. A. Robinson 1990). The major economic links between Marshall and Keynes have been long understood, despite the introduction of occasional biases (J. Robinson 1962: 79), even though the details will continue to be elaborated (for example Clower 1989; Leijonhufvud 1994).