This chapter deals with the philosophical and religious dimensions of postmodernity and focuses on educational issues. One way of unpacking the post-modern critique of modern education would be to follow Foucault and develop an archaeology of the power-structures inherent in institutionalised schooling; alternatively could draw on Derrida and offer a critique of the logo-centrism of modern curricula dependent on forms of techno-rationality. According to John Locke the task of education was to enable young bourgeoisie gentlemen to prepare to enter adult society and serve their country according to their station in life. One of the great achievements of the Enlightenment was the remarkable growth of knowledge of the natural world. The success of modern science, when coupled with heightened expectations regarding the potential efficacy of schooling as a force for good in the world, opened up the possibility of consolidating pre-modern approaches to education grounded in the pursuit of knowledge.