The English Commonwealth faced daunting challenges in 1649. European governments, shocked at the execution of Charles I, encouraged exiled royalists that they might receive foreign military assistance. The end of the Thirty Years’ War increased such hopes because the Dutch and French had considerably fewer commitments, thus freeing resources for other purposes. However, for a variety of reasons, the leading western powers were not forthcoming with military aid. This left Charles II reliant on Ormond’s efforts and on the possible resurgence of the Scottish royalists.