The emphasis so far has been on what the teacher can do for the learner. Learners, however, are not usually helpless. ‘Humans have the ability to monitor and control their conscious cognitive processes’ (Redding, 1990:27). If they fail to understand they may, for instance, persist or try a new approach. In short, they may initiate actions themselves which help them understand (Flavell, 1979). They regulate, control and sustain learning so that their learning goals may be achieved (Zimmerman, 1989; Schunk, 1994).