chapter  7
Pages 15

Use movement, substitution and other tests for the sentences in (2)–(9) to confirm for each subordinate clause what kind of constituent it is inside.

We know that these root sentences contain a subordinate clause because all of them have two verbs; each verb must be in a sentence of its own, hence one verb is in the root sentence and the second verb is in a subordinate sentence (clause). Some of these subordinate clauses are contained directly under S, while others are in VP, or NP, or AP or PP. An example of each is shown in the tree structures below.