As the last chapter acknowledged, the Birmingham subculturalists occupy a central place in the study of youth culture and almost all subsequent studies have acknowledged their important, if flawed, contribution. However, changing times require changed theories and chapter 2 turns to some of these. Since the 1970s glut of CCCS subcultural studies, frequently based on 1960s fieldwork, the world has demonstrably changed. Class and masculinity are just two areas that are now much less well-defined for example. A further important change is the multi-ethnic nature of much of the contemporary western world, which has transformed many urban landscapes through commerce – Grønland, Oslo in Norway known as ‘Little Pakistan’ for example. We live in much more interdependent times where nations can function less and less as discrete units – a movement often termed globalisation, to be explored further in the next chapter in relation to music. The nation-state as an organising unit assumes less and less importance while multinational corporations and international bodies thrive.