chapter  10
Foreigners in Meiji Japan
Pages 2

THE GOVERNMENT and people of Japan were the main architects of successful modernization, but a number of fellow Asians, Europeans, and Americans made major contributions too. In the final years of the sh gunate the Tokugawa government began to employ Dutch, French and British officers to modernize its navy. Europeans were hired to teach in official language schools, and more progressive domains, such as Satsuma, appointed foreign engineers to assist in new industrial ventures. Indeed, by 1868, over 200 Westerners had served terms of employment in Japan.