chapter  47
Japanese Domestic Radio and Cinema Propaganda, 1937–1945: An Overview
Pages 21

LONG BEFORE the creation of the modern Japanese state censorship and propaganda had a signficant role in politics and cultural life. From the early seventeenth century Chu Hsi Confucianism was the ideology of government, and moralistic exhortation was an important aspect of administration.1 Placards and edicts instructed all Japanese to be diligent and loyal and to behave in ways appropriate to their social status.2 By the eighteenth century literary and theatrical censorship was detailed and effective, and did much to create the special conventions of the kabuki theatre.3 Pre-modern censors sought to protect the regime and public morals, and as eductional standards rose official control of publications became increasingly important.