A large population-based study in 1993±94 of 5196 people from ethnic minorities, with a comparative sample of 2867 white ``indigenous'' people, was conducted by the Policy Studies Institute across the UK. Ethnicity was assigned by researchers according to the subjects' family origins to avoid the instability of self-perceived ethnicity.3;8 White respondents were divided into ``British'' and ``Other White'' groups. Only the ``British'' were used for comparison. The category ``African-Asian'' was people of Indian origin whose parents were born in Africa. The ``Black Caribbean'' group mostly had grandparents and parents of Caribbean origin. The Bangladeshi and Pakistani groups were amalgamated because of small numbers, and on the basis that they share a common religion and socio-economic characteristics.