New towns have been built for centuries. Some of the forces which brought the new city of Milton Keynes into existence began in ancient times, for example the growth and movement of population, and the need for commerce, communication and social interaction. As this chapter will show, during the 1960s the planners of the new city were attempting to harness these long-established antecedents to the demands of an increasingly affluent, and an increasingly mobile, population. The 1960s were an exciting time, and not simply in the realms of sexuality, permissiveness, radical politics and rock and roll. The decade also witnessed some stimulating debates about urban change, and a great deal of speculation about the 'city of the future'. More than most cities, Milton Keynes deserves to be viewed as the outcome of some dynamic new thinking about the nature of urban life.