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FIGURE 3 STRENGTH OF ECONOMY AND WELFARE STATE

The Portuguese economy at the time of accession to the EU (1985) had a GDP per capital that was more than half that of the EU-15 average.66 The Eastern candidates’ in the mid1990s were less than one-third of the EU average. Slovenia and the Czech Republic (both together a small portion of the candidate population) were the only countries whose personal income was better than or equal to the Portuguese.67 The openness of eastern European economies is remarkable, probably because they are smaller. The openness is bigger than Portugal’s and the EU-15’s average in 1985. Actually they look too open but, nevertheless, they pass the test.