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21 Pages

The 2004 Enlargement: Iberian Lessons for Post-Communist Europe

After decades of relative isolation under authoritarian regimes, the success of processes of democratic transition in Portugal and Spain in the second half of the 1970s paved the way for full membership in the European Community (EC).1 For Spain, Portugal, and their EC partners, this momentous and long-awaited development had profound consequences and set in motion complex processes of adjustment.