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Portugal and Eastern Europe: After the Revolution, Democratic Europe

European integration was as much a magnet for Portugal a quarter of a century ago as it is for eastern European countries today. Portugal went from having an authoritarian regime to democratic, European capitalism, avoiding a Communist takeover because it was a strong nation-state, had a cohesive society with a competitive elite, and a level of development about half that of the EU (European Union) average.1 Eastern European new democracies are weak on these basic features and will, therefore, face wider difficulties than Portugal did in the institutionalization of democracy acy and European integration.