In spring 1853 political activity among the German exiles in London reached its lowest ebb. Neither democrats nor socialists continued to believe in an imminent new revolution. Every project for supporting continental revolutionary movements had been abandoned. All clubs and societies had either completely collapsed or had faded into obscurity. Many Forty-eighters had left for the United States or Australia. Financial support from Germany and from the United States for the remaining refugees had dwindled to virtually nothing. European and American papers alike had become tired of refugee stories, anda rare occurrence in the history of Germans in England-there was no German-language newspaper at all in London to voice the exiles’ interests.