The overall purpose of this chapter is to examine the role of national contexts in shaping university-industry relationships. To this end, this chapter examines the historical developments in the three national settings to address two questions. First, what have been the changes in university-industry relationships? Second, how have the commonly cited factors, affected or not affected such an evolution? In this respect, there are three usual suspects: (a) the changes in the overall level of government funding may prompt resource-dependent universities to respond; (b) government regulatory policies and funding programs specific to university-industry relationships may influence universities to behave differently; and (c) changing industrial expectations to work with universities may have influenced the pattern of collaboration.