The Gender Divide in Vocational Education: Is It Bridgable?
The 1976 amendments to the Vocational Education Act of 1963 required states that receive funds for vocational education programs to include efforts to integrate vocational classes and reduce barriers caused by sex stereotyping and sex bias. To oversee this goal, each state was required to designate a sex-equity coordinator. To ensure the states’ attention to sex
The Gender Divide in Vocational Education: Is It Bridgable? Percentage of High School Graduates Completing One or More Course in Specific Labor Market Preparation Programs, by Sex
equity, the Carl D. Perkins Vocational Education Act of 1984 established set-asides: a percentage of a state’s federal funds for vocational education for programs aimed at developing marketable skills and support services for single parents and displaced homemakers. The act was reauthorized in 1990, increasing the percentage set aside and strengthening the role of the sex-equity coordinators to be more assertive in eliminating sex stereotyping and discrimination in vocational education programs, especially in
Percentage Distribution of Subbaccalaureate Students According to Vocational Major Subcategory, by Sex
eliminated the set-asides for displaced homemakers and the requirement for a state sex-equity coordinator and mandated that $60,000-$150,000 of state leadership funds be used for sex-equity services. The state equity advocates work through the National Alliance for Partnership in Equity (NAPE), which was formed by sex-equity coordinators in the 1980s. Perkins III of 1998 was up for reauthorization in 2003.