Citizenship, networks and activism
Chapter 4 examined ways in which citizens have been encouraged by the state to fulfil particular duties. ‘Active’ citizenship operates at spatial scales below the nation-state – neighbourhood, community and locality are emphasized – but generally in support of the state and its policies, conforming to what Parker (1999b) has described as ‘good citizenship’ (Figure 5.1). Citizens participating inside these frameworks may use them to press for greater self-determination or the delivery of particular services (see also Short 1993), but they have also been recognized as a form of ‘government from a distance’ that utilizes community and responsibility as a form of governmentality in order to achieve particular policy ends (Garland 1996; Rose 1996; Fyfe and Milligan 2003a; Lockie and Higgins 2007; Cheshire and Woods 2009). Thus a NW scheme may improve channels of communication between the public and police, allowing residents to demand improvements to local policing services, but it is also a way of making citizens responsible for their own policing.