chapter  2
21 Pages

Oncogenes

WithF. Macdonald, C.H.J. Ford, A.G. Casson

For over 30 years, it has been known that DNA viruses such as SV40 virus and RNA viruses such as the retrovirus, Rous sarcoma virus, are capable of transforming those cells they infect. These viruses are associated primarily with animals and are rarely implicated in human disease, although a few examples are known (Table 2.1). The viruses are particularly important because they have taught us a great deal about the molecular basis for transformation and have led to the identification of cellular oncogenes. Viruses associated with human cancers

Virus

Associated tumors

DNA viruses

Epstein–Barr

Burkitt’s lymphoma

Nasopharyngeal cancer

Hepatitis B

Liver cancer

Papilloma virus

Benign warts

Cervical cancer

RNA viruses

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)

Kaposi’s sarcoma

Human T-cell leukemia virus Type I (HTLV-1)

Adult T-cell leukemia

HTLV-2

Hairy cell leukemia

HTLV-5

Cutaneous T-cell leukemia