Learning, development, and ageing
The notion of change is at the heart of board-game playing. With every move, the situation on the board is modiﬁed, sometimes drastically, as in bao or awele. Change also aﬀects players, through learning and development. Learning can be deﬁned as change in explicit or implicit knowledge that aﬀects one’s behaviour. Development also has a biological connotation and refers broadly to a sequence of changes over years. Both terms are ill deﬁned in the literature, and it is often diﬃcult to classify empirical studies unambiguously under one of these labels. Studies with adults tend to involve more learning, although the eﬀects of ageing start to aﬀect performance from early adulthood onwards. Studies with children tend to deal more with development, although it is often impossible to partial out the eﬀect of learning.