chapter  3
42 Pages

Restitution from traffi ckers

Sex traffi cking is a profi table business. Recently, in AT v Dulghieru the High Court accepted the victims’ testimony that the daily income made at each victim’s expense was between £500 and £1,000. The Dulghieru defendants, who were previously convicted, were issued (unsatisfi ed) confi scation orders totalling £786,000.1 Based on fi gures found in the Israeli Parliamentary Report on human traffi cking, it could be calculated that, on average, the daily income made at each victim’s expense is around £250.2 According to the working paper of the International Labour Organization (ILO) on profi ts from forced labour, each victim in industrialised countries is estimated to generate an annual average turnover of US$96,000, and profi t of US$67,000. Based on calculations of average price per sexual act (which is region-sensitive) the annual income from forced sexual labour is estimated at US$33.9 billion.3 Siddharth Kara estimates that the average annual revenue produced by a victim exploited in Western Europe is US$114,000 and the annual profi t is US$78,000 (with the equivalent weighted global averages of US$42,000 and US$29,000); and that less than 2 per cent of revenues are spent on payment to victims in Western European urban centre apartment brothels. The average purchase price of victims in sales between traffi ckers varies between a maximum of US$5,250 in North America and a minimum of US$660 in South Asia with US$4,800 for Western Europe, US$3,000 for the Middle East and a global average sale price of US$1,895 per victim. Kara further estimates the 2007 global revenues from forced sexual exploitation at US$51.3 billion, global profi ts at US$35.7 billion, the revenues for 2007 generated from the sale of victims between traffi ckers – which he terms profi ts from slave-trading, as

distinguished from profi ts from sexual exploitation of slaves – at US$1 billion, and the corresponding profi ts at US$600 million.4