Export-oriented industrialization, battles for the state and the disorganization of organized labour
Rejecting the search for ‘ideal-typical’ forms of state capital-labour relations, Hadiz (1997) has drawn attention to the variations these relations have taken as a consequence of different historical experiences of industrialization. Without canvassing all possibilities, he argues that three ‘models of accommodation’ between state capital and labour can be identified: ‘social-democratic’, ‘populist’ and ‘exclusionary’, each of which is linked with, and part of, broader ‘social and political frameworks’ (Hadiz 1997: 12). In contrast with ‘social-democratic’ (associated with liberal democracies) and ‘populist’ models (associated with inclusionary corporatism such as that found, for example, in Latin America), Hadiz argues that export-oriented industrialization (EOI) in the East and South-east Asian regions has been characterized by ‘exclusionary models of accommodation’. The principal features of this are the ‘political marginalisation of the working class’ and ‘its demobilisation as a social force’ in the context of broader state-society relations. These are arranged ‘on the basis of state-controlled and established, monolithic and non-competitive institutions, geared to facilitate the control and demobilisation of society-based organisations and movements’ (ibid.: 26-27).