Organizing labour in the 1990s: Crisis and continuing struggles for a political voice
From the late 1970s through to the early 1990s, organized labour became progressively weakened, fragmented and politically marginalized. This was the combined result of the demobilizing impact of rapid industrial expansion, the particular character of the political space that labour occupied and the ongoing struggles over the boundaries of this space as workers confronted stiff opposition from capital and state elements. During the period of the National Peacekeeping Council (NPKC), labour organization was subject to even further restrictions. Combined with the fragmentation and exclusion of the 1980s, the actions taken by the NPKC represented a significant blow to workers and their collective capacity to deal with employers and government.