This book sets out, for the first time, to show how diversity and equality issues can be built into spatial planning through the use of mainstreaming. What are the key issues for diversity and equality over the coming years and where will change need to happen? Although living and working in a diverse world is not a new phenomenon, more countries are becoming increasingly diverse as the international, national, legal and social contexts within which we all live and work are changing. Countries are dealing with new sets of differences as global migration and European integration has extended the boundaries of the mobile labour market. Diversity and equality are not mutually exclusive and one does not replace the other. Equality in diverse communities is increasingly seen as a right and not an expectation. Diversity in itself will not deliver equality, although a consideration of diversity and difference may well highlight areas of discrimination not recognized to date. Historically some differences give rise to discrimination and disadvantage and some do not. Gender, race, religion, disability, age and sexuality are at the root of most discrimination in society. Power is at the heart of the distinction between diversity and equality (Davies and Ohri, undated). Equality addresses power; diversity addresses difference. An integrated approach to diversity and equality is essential. A full consideration of equality and diversity should lead to an increase in the effectiveness of planning for sustainable communities.