The logic and limitations of male working-class culture in a resource hinterland
Connell (1995) has shown that modern societies contain a variety of forms of masculinity that are ordered hierarchically. What he terms hegemonic, subordinate, complicit and marginal masculinities (Connell 1995) differ in terms of their relationships with the femininities and social classes of a given society. Pyke (1996) argues that class is the form of power that effectively locks the different types of masculinities into dominant or subordinate positions:
the ascendant masculinity of higher-class men and the subordinate masculinity associated with lower-class men are constructed in relation to one another in a class-based gender system. Class-based masculinities provide men with different mechanisms of interpersonal power that, when practiced, (re)constitute and validate dominant and subordinate masculinities.