From genomics to proteomics
Proteomics is a rapidly growing area of molecular biology that is concerned with the systematic, large-scale analysis of proteins. It is based on the concept of the proteome as a complete set of proteins produced by a given cell or organism under a deﬁned set of conditions. Proteins are involved in almost every biological function, so a comprehensive analysis of the proteins in the cell provides a unique global perspective on how these molecules interact and cooperate to create and maintain a working biological system. The cell responds to internal and external changes by regulating the level and activity of its proteins, so changes in the proteome, either qualitative or quantitative, provide a snapshot of the cell in action. The proteome is a complex and dynamic entity that can be deﬁned in terms of the sequence, structure, abundance, localization, modiﬁcation, interaction and biochemical function of its components, providing a rich and varied source of data. The analysis of these various properties of the proteome requires an equally diverse range of technologies.