Mass- and Micro-Media Campaigns
Candidates in the post-reform era must obtain the support of millions of primary and caucus voters across numerous states. Reaching that many voters through advertising is cost-prohibitive. Even the best funded candidates cannot advertise in all of the states in which they must compete. Candidates depend in large part on the free coverage provided by print and broadcast news media to reach prospective voters. The news media can advance or hinder the cause of particular candidates by giving them more or less exposure, labeling candidates in more or less favorable terms, paying attention to certain issues and not others, and by setting expectations for candidate performance. 1 Candidates also campaign online through low-cost social media, interactive websites, blogs, and YouTube. The internet has changed nomination campaigns, enabling campaigns to engage in micro-or individual-level targeting and messaging in a campaign. How candidates seek the nomination evolves as candidates adapt innovations in communications, conducting mass-media and micro-media campaigns for the support of prospective caucus and primary voters.