chapter  7
Four causes of educational confusion
Pages 15

The aim of this chapter is to introduce a new way of looking at the problem of educational confusion. This new way draws a connection between Aristotle’s four causes and the four goal areas (Goodlad), the four ideological interest groups (Kliebard) and the four curriculum ideologies (Schiro) of education. Alignment between these various forms of four on the pragmatic side connects across the passageway of the ontological diff erence to the phenomenological fourfold, which gives the onefold place of be-ing. This phenomenological onefold off ers an aesthetic understanding (a phenomenological destruction) of Dewey’s particular sense of occupation, which has been mired in educational confusion since its inception in the early twentieth century. Such confusion occurs because occupation is aligned pragmatically with certain educational goals/ideological interests/curriculum ideologies – meaning that it exists in confl ict with others. Comprehended phenomenologically, however, occupation is the place of be-ing.

Dewey’s understanding of Aristotle’s four causes