The new security dilemma
Emancipatory Security Theory rests its critical analysis on two principles of social science analysis formulated primarily within the Frankfurt School and other critical approaches.2 The first principle is that a critical analysis seeks to highlight the contradictions within the actual (what is happening) and its better potential (what could have happened). The second principle is that it looks for the emancipatory potential within these contradictions already present in existing relations and structures. These two principles, in fact, point at two phases of the critical analysis. The first phase is problematization of the existing relations and structures in order to reveal how they hinder the realization of human freedoms. In other words, it questions what kinds of ideas, and their derived practices, compromise progress towards construction of structures susceptible to the enjoyment of freedoms by individuals. The critical analysis’s second phase is derived from the first one: transformation in order to lay out the conditions of a human society where individuals can realize their full potential by enjoying extensive freedom of choice; that is, emancipation. The focal point here is that the transformation phase should be thought of in terms of already existing, albeit marginalized, ideas and practices. This two-phase analysis calls for an analytical framework through which both phases can be processed. This chapter will perform the second movement towards setting up an alternative language game to address the insecurities generated by irregular protection-seeking migration, by introducing another conceptual tool of a new thinking: the new security dilemma. The concept of security dilemma, since its conceptualization in 1950 by John Herz, has been rethought. Among them, Ken Booth and Nick Wheeler’s reconceptualization entirely transforms the security dilemma from a situation describing a vicious cycle of insecurity between ‘rational’ actors to an analytical framework in which competitive security ideas and practices can be studied comparatively. This new dynamic analytical framework not only fits into the two phases of an emancipatory security analysis. It also reintroduces some concepts, such as identity, to the security dilemma theorizing in a different way; and brings a new concept, trust, into the security analysis. Through these novelties, the new security dilemma, it will be argued below, can be the analytical framework for the emancipatory security analysis of irregular protectionseeking migration.