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Lesson 4 Education—Professions

Having left school, there are then two ways into a profession: firstly, by studying at an

institute or university and, secondly, by training as an apprentice under an ycmo -a “master.” University degrees usually last four or five years, and two types of diploma are awarded: blue (pass) and red (pass with distinction). Some places are now offering an alternative two-tier system equivalent to the B.A. and M.A.—a four year and a two-year Those who continue their education beyond this level, do so as either for three years of full-time study or four years part-time After this period, the may defend his thesis to become a “master of science” The few who continue beyond this level may gain a doctorate after two or three years, to become

The second route of training-as an apprentice-is more traditional and is particularly found in the handicrafts. Fathers teach their sons the profession of their ancestors and by this means trades and professions are passed from one generation to the next. In addition, other people-neighbours, acquaintances, and relatives-bring their children to work as apprentices to skilled masters. The masters teach their trade to apprentices for a certain period of time, after which the apprentices are able to work by themselves. Professions that are passed on from one generation to the next or by apprentices training under a master are the most ancient of professions and include workmen, jewellers, copperworkers, carpenters, painters, butchers, bakers, sweet-makers, hairdressers, shoemakers, carpet-makers, and tailors of national clothes.