Settlement in the Golan, 1967–1970: temporary settlement The designing period: the establishment of ten settlements in a
The design of the settlement map of the Golan continued for about 25 years – much longer than had been planned – and was completed only toward 1992, against the backdrop of the Madrid Conference. During this period, 32 settlements were established in the Golan, of which 31 were rural and one was the urban center of Katzrin. Only about a quarter of the population goal had been achieved, and the Jewish population in the Golan totaled 11,600 by the end of the development process. About 7,700 people were living in the rural settlements and 3,900 resided in Katzrin. At the time, the number of non-Jewish Golan residents totaled 16,100 people. At the beginning of 2010, the Golan Jewish population was 17,600, while the non-Jewish population was 23,200. The political aim of settlement – to demonstrate Israel’s intention not to withdraw from the Golan without a peace agreement, and to aid in the struggle against these demands when they would appear – had later been accompanied by the aspiration that the settlements would provide the infrastructure for a possible future peace border of the Golan which would be more advantageous than the international border. Nevertheless, through the years, a gap was created between the political objective, and the wish and hope which accompanied it, and this gap was what initiated doubts regarding the political future of the Golan and the future of its Israeli settlements. These doubts were often concealed in declarations of support and amity for the settlements, and thus, those who most often raised the doubts were the Golan settlers themselves, whose sensitivity made them the first to distinguish them. They responded with a struggle for public and political support both in Israel and externally, and at the same time, tried to take advantage of the doubts to increase the resources which were apportioned to Golan settlement. Three peaks of uncertainty led to three peaks of struggle over the Golan during this period. These occurred:
• In 1974 – following the Yom Kippur War and the political moves which took place in its wake.