T HE poster is very old. How old we cannot tell. If, in the Stone Age, the maker of flint implements advertised his wares by stripping the turf from the chalk in some rude design before his dwelling, after the manner of the Saxons in the white horse in Berkshire, no record remains of it. At every stage of the world's history advertisement has been the inseparable handmaid of commerce. And it cannot be doubted that the art of each successive age has been applied, in a greater or less measure, to serve the purpose of its advertisements. A sketch of the general history of advertising has already been given in a previous chapter, in the course of which allusion was made to the earliest known examples of picture-posters, the sketches of Roman gladiators on the walls of Pompeii, and to various other pictorial embellishments which have from time to time served the ends of commerce. In this chapter our attention will be confined to modern art in its relation to advertising.