chapter  3
Polyfunctionality of daj⁴
Pages 88

It may be a main verb (with more than one meaning), as follows:

khaw3 caD da/ ngua2 sbimi 3 irr come.to.have cow two 'S/he will get (i.e. receive) two cows.' laaw2 kao da/ 3 foc.pel know.and.have.ability.for 'He knew how to read a bit.' (47.8)

nangsilt/ writing

Here, it is a postverbal aspectual/modal verb marker:

maa2 dee! come pel

(3) ton4-ma/ suuni meo-fiini khitn5 bli da/ plant.prfx-wood tall f.prfx-woman ascend neg can haw2 khitn5 da/ 1 ascend can 'Tall trees, women can't elimb, (but) we can elimb (them).' (578.7)

(4) maa2 jaam3 mid/ da/ pamaan2 diian3 niini come VISIt mother t.comp approximately month one '(I) had been to visit (my) mother for about a month.' (627.5)

(5) cer-sip2-hoe meen1 khaw3 pot2-pool da/ jaani som3buun3 seven-ten-six be.so 3 liberate m.comp way complete 'Seventy-six was when they liberated (the country) entirely.' (648.6)

Here, it is a preverbal aspect-modality marker, with a range of interpretations such as 'get to', 'have to', 'happen to', and mere emphasis:

(6) caw4 boo pUUk5 phae caw4 kao bil da/' 2 neg plant vegetable 2 foc.pcl neg rslt.prr.evnt kin3 phae eat vegetable '(If) you didn't plant vegetables, you wouldn't get to eat vegetables.' (744.2)

(7) haw2 bO° da/, kin3 khaw5 del 1 neg rslt.prr.evnt eat rice pcl 'I didn't (get to) eat, you know.' (390.13)

(8) laaw2 da/' mao hen3 phoo-Iuunl phuu5 niini 3 rslt.prr.evnt dir.pcl(come) see father-uncle person one 'He did (come and) see one old man .. .' (52.8) The topic of this study-da/ ACQUIRE-is a prime example of the kind of

polyfunctionality typical of the isolating/analytic grammars found in mainland Southeast Asia. It shows main verb as well as postverbal and preverbal aspectuaVmodal functions. Non main-verb functions are related to functions in erstwhile multi main-verb constructions, as most aspect-modality marking tends to be in these languages.