Education for liberal democracy
The age of revolutions revolutionized citizenship and, as a consequence, posed new educational questions. The old citizenship was based upon the assumption of an elite, small in numbers and virtuous in civic conduct. The new citizenship was based on the assumption of the masses endowed with democratic rights and owing loyalty to the nation-state (see e.g. Riesenberg 1992: xv, 272-3). Peter Riesenberg has called this new style of citizenship ‘second citizenship’, though, in truth, we can identify three phases in its development during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, which we may label western liberal, totalitarian and post-colonial. In this chapter we shall be examining the educational responses in the first and third of these, postponing the totalitarian phase for separate treatment in Chapter 4. We shall also give separate treatment – in Chapter 5 – to the complication of multiculturalism as it has affected and still affects citizenship education.