This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts covered in the preceding chapters of this book. The book discusses a lot of ground in relation to the schooling of young boys. It examines the actual statistical evidence and the key explanations offered in relation to the phenomenon of young boys' lower levels of achievement compared to girls. The book looks at how young children's learning and development can be theorised and the place of gender within this. It presents a detailed assessment of the rhetoric and the reality of 'boys' underachievement'. The book provides sample evidence of the need to begin any strategy aimed at addressing the poorer educational performance of boys. It argues that the socalled issue of 'boys' underachievement' is one that should be of central concern to early years teachers and practitioners. The book also examines what explanations have been put forward for the phenomenon of 'boys' underachievement'.