chapter  1
Mobility, Emancipation, and Ideology
Pages 14

The history of the Wandervogel before 1918 and, as it became known after 1918, as the Bündische Jugend, comprises about 35 years. From 1905 onwards girls began joining this movement and mixed groups of boys and girls, and girls-only groups came into existence alongside the already existing boys-only leagues. On the whole, the members of the movement had a middle-class background and opposed socio-cultural and political Wilhelminian philosophies, morals, and norms.