chapter  5
26 Pages


The Ba’th state never achieved the totalitarian penetration and control of society implicit in its Leninist model and its autonomy was being contested even as it was being asserted. First, the state began to generate a new dominant class bridging the state and private sectors with its own distinct interests. The corruption and inequality resulting from this process spawned a violent Islamic opposition among those damaged. Then, the emergence of a more complex civil society, combined with the post-bi-polar transformation of the international system, brought pressure on the state to liberalise statesociety relations.