The previous chapters have hinted at the voluminous nature of the literature of instructional supervision. What those chapters did not show, however, is how most, if not all, of this literature is theoretical, prescriptive, or both. Other than the occasional doctoral dissertation, supervision has not had the benefit of much inductive, empirical research of its lived, phenomenological processes. What little research done to date on the interactive processes of supervision, particularly the supervisory conference, has relied upon a priori coding schemes and categories (e.g. Weller 1971; Blumberg 1980). Often such protocols are simply adaptations of classroom observation instruments, not specifically designed for supervisory conferences (Zeichner and Liston 1985:157). Other research on interactive supervisory conference processes examines either actors’ simulations (e.g. Pajak and Glickman 1989) or commercially-produced training videos (e.g. Rivers 1989).