Chapter 7 summarises and analyses empirical findings in light of theoretical arguments. It compares the results in both Ukraine and Moldova, and discusses the difference in outcomes and specifically why the EU faced significant difficulties in promoting institutional change in the migration sector. In order to understand the puzzle, the study paid particular attention to the EU strategies and how the European Union addresses the problem of institutional change. The chapter emphasises the importance of creating deliberative institutions and underlines how external actors can facilitate the process. Moreover, the findings discussed in the Ukraine and Moldova chapters are compared and implications for the EU external policies in general, and in particular for theoretical debates on rule transfer, diffusion and convergence, are studied. In a broader perspective, it presents a re-assessment of the EU policies of institutional change through the theoretical lenses of new institutionalism. The chapter points out that external policies should encourage, facilitate promotion and enforcement of bottom-up solutions to domestic problems by opening access to rulemaking and empowering broader societal groups.