The Structure of the Mādhyamika Dialectic
For the earlier Buddhism, the real as the efficient (arthakriyakari) could not be permanent; only the momentary (k~al).ika) is real. Things are different at different times; there is no duration; permanence is a subjective construction put upon discrete momentary entities. There are as many entities as there are distinguishable aspects. Each entity is unique; the universal is an appearance. With a Humean metaphysics, the Buddhists worked out the complementary doctrine of conceptual construction largely on Kantian lines. Rejecting the permanent, they elaborated the doctrine of Elements. Causation was takenastheco-ordination of these separate elements ( dharma-sarilketa).