chapter  IV
15 Pages

The Influence of the Mādhyamika Dialectic

These basic ideas of the Madhyamika were accepted; but there was a reaction against what appeared to some as its extremism and unqualified negation of phenomena. The Idealism of the Y ogacara (Vijfianavada) school has to be understood as a significant modification of the Madhyamika Siinyata on a constructive basis. The formula now is: That which appears is real but not the manner of its appearance ;1 that which is devoid is real, while that of which it is devoid is unreal. . . . 2 'All is real' or 'All is nothing' are both incorrect forms of siinyata. The rope is inherently devoid of the 'snake'- appearance, which is foreign to it; but it is not devoid of its own

intrinsic nature as rope. 1 With this logic, the Vijfianavadins contend that the reality of vijfiana (consciousness) must be accepted as it cannot be denied at all, while the duality of subject and object with which it is apparently infected must be considered non-existent; siinyata2 applies to this unreal aspect. The real is identified with vijfiana.