chapter  12
24 Pages

Bureaucracy and electoral manipulation

At one time, politicians and party politics had a grip on the bureaucracies of all seven countries here reviewed. In some of these countries, this grip was maintained or strengthened over time, while in others it was loosened or relinquished. It will now be seen that where the political intrusion into the bureaucracy prevailed, elections were mani· pulated through an exchange of material benefits for votes; and where it declined or ceased, this form of manipulation went into a parallel decline.