Bureaucracy in a double bind - some case studies
In the preceding two chapters it could be seen that Western-style democracies differ widely with regard to the penetration of party politics into their bureaucracies: they range from countries whose bureaucracies have become largely non-partisan, to countries whose bureaucracies are largely party political in their appointments, promotions and loyalties. It could also be seen that only in countries of the first type can proper electoral, democratic procedures take place. The preceding chapters thus traced the implications of bureaucracy for democracy. In this chapter the question will be turned around and - to paraphrase John Kennedy's famous words - we will ask not what bureaucracy does to democracy but what democracy does to bureaucracy. From this vantage point it will be seen that the problem of party politics has not been solved, that it poses a dilemma, and daunts bureaucracies in countries of both types.