Certainly by the late teens or early twenties, Collodi's energetic puppet had become a household familiar. Interest in the little novel rose dramatically in the 1920s: thirteen new publishers added the puppet to their lists, so that, when added to those continuing, a total of twenty publishers released on average eight or nine translations a year, more than doubling the production rate of the prior decade! I
The 1920s has been called the Golden Age of children's literature. Building on a movement begun before World War I, booksellers and librarians joined forces to encourage greater reading: publishers established children's departments, and librarians instituted Children's Book Week, encouraging schools to join in the curricula. Publishers helped mark this new focus by enlivening their picture book selections and creating special, sumptuously decorated editions meant to allure and charm both young readers and their parents? Pinocchio, indeed, was part of the carnival. What still stands today as the most magnificent edition ever distributed in the United States is Macmillan's 1925 quarto volume,3 with over 400 illustrations in colors and shades by Attilio Mussino. Louise Seaman of Macmillan arranged for the Italian publisher Bemporad to take their own third edition of this work (first released in 1911), substitute Carol Della Chiesa's English translation (written for this purpose), and revise the title page with Macmillan's name. This grand edition sold for five dollars, and was released again in 1926 and 1929 (with some revision of illustrations, this marvelous volume was subsequently reissued in 1969, 1978, and 1989). Macmillan, beginning in 1927, also released almost annually a moderately priced shorter edition with black-andwhite illustrations and twelve color plates.