It is fairly certain that the Aryans who entered India were illiterate. Intertribal feuds were not infrequent, many of them arising out of cattle raids. Their clans acknowledged each a chief.-like those of Old Ireland and Scotland. In India the Aryans gave to him the title raja, but often he was no more than the nominal head or chairman of the Sabha or governing committee, a laird in whom were invested the clan's land titles (such as they might be). Although the government was so far democratic, only members of khattiya families-the nobility, who boasted descent from the sunl-could occupy a position on the Sabha and serve as hereditary or elected raja.