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Of the numerous Upanishads, only the BrihadaraQ.yaka and the Chandogya are considered to be pre-Buddhist. In them, for the first time in Indian sacred literature, we find prominence given to the muni, the independent sage. I

Brahmal)ic absorption in the sacrifice (yajna) ultimately gave way to the speculation and worship (pUjii) of Hinduism; and our present study corresponds to the time of the philosophical Upanishads and traditional Siitras, the literature of Indian asceticism and mysticism with which BrahmaQ.ism ends and Hinduism, together with Buddhism, begins. The student of Buddhism has only to remember that the Upanishadic period of Indian thought was one of renascence which witnessed this remarkable transition-from traditional belief in the efficacy of the sacrifice to active popular asceticism-as the ancient Vedic tradition gave way to an epoch of positive religious speculation.