chapter  8
70 Pages

IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS

The meaning of these words from the point of view of our concepts is clear. In addition to those frustrations suffered by the criminal which would be judged as such even by our standards, he also regards as frustrating and inimical certain situations, people and events which would not be so regarded by another person. As far as obstacle is concerned, he emphasizes the fact that he is frustrated (obstacle-dominant extra-punitive reaction, symbol E '). We may also add that criminals frequently feel that they are abused (see Bender, Keiser and Schilder, 6 I); that 'sociopaths' (to use Partridge's term) believe that the world is against them; and when they themselves are the frustrators, they exhibit another

variantoftheextrapunitiveE'reactioninshowingnosympathy fortheirvictims(seeinparticularautobiographicalstudiessuchas MarkBenney'sLowCompany,65;JamesSpenser'sLimeyBreaksIn, 651;orCliffordShaw'sTheJack-Roller,631,andTheNatural HistoryofaDelinquentCareer,632).Theyminimizethefrustration causedtoothers,andevenperceive'super-ego-blocking'situationsas'ego-blocking':thusAlexander'sandHealy'sSolitary Offender,whorobbedhisemployer,spokeaboutitinsuchaway, that'itsoundedasthoughhisemployerhadcommittedsomething againsthim,nottheopposite'(19,p.238).ElsewhereHealy mentions'mentaldissatisfactions','criminalisticimagery'and 'irritativementalreactionstoenvironmentalconditions'asprincipalbasesofdelinquency(321,p.32)andstatesthatdelinquency islargelyareactiontofrustration(323,p.205).