chapter  7
18 Pages

Maritime Fraud and Technology

No matter how difficult a bill of lading is to forge, this is irrelevant if delivery can be made without any need to produce it at all. Initiatives used by container lines allowing for remote printing of digitally signed bills by shippers (with software

1. Para. 1.111. 2. [2000] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 211, discussed at para. 5.017; paras. 5.044 et seq. 3. Gaskell, Bills of lading in an electronic age [2010] LMCLQ 233, 235. 4. (1882) 7 App Cas 591. See further para. 2.085, and more especially paras. 5.010 et seq. 5. See para. 3.038; para. 4.118. 6. Gaskell [2010] LMCLQ 233, 236; Goldby, The CMI Rules for Electronic Bills of Lading reassessed in

the light of current practices [2008] LMCLQ 56, 61.