chapter  XIV
10 Pages

Language as an Expression

Language serves three purposes: (I) to indicate facts, (2) to express the state of the speaker, (3) to alter the state of the hearer. These three purposes are not always all present. If, when alone, I prick my finger and say "ouch", only (2) is present. Imperative, interrogative, and optative sentences involve (2) and (3), but not (I). Lies involve (3), and, in a sense, (I), but not (2). Exclamatory statements made in solitude, or without regard to a hearer, involve (I) and (2), but not (3). Single words may involve all three, for instance if I find a corpse in the street and shout "murder!"